Duke's Materia Tonica

Tincture Handbook: Part 15 - Old-Fashioned Alchemical Spagyric Tinctures

Spagyric tinctures are an ancient alchemical and old-fashioned method of doing a single-step extraction tincture and then calcining, by indirect high-heat, the marc after extraction into white mineral ash, which is then dissolved into the single-step extraction.


Tincture Handbook: Part 14 - Herbal Powder Extracts (Ratio and Standardized)

A powder extract is made by extracting an herb into a single-step or dual-step or multi-step fluid extract which is then spray dried and flash dried to form a soluble powdered form of the fluid extract. A powder extract of an herb is different than a powdered herb.


Tincture Handbook: Part 13 - Dissolved Powder Extract Glycerites


Tincture Handbook: Part 12 - Multi-Step Extraction Tinctures

Multi-step tinctures are multiple step liquid extract of an herb, of at least three steps, but as many six or seven steps, that are produced in a specific order of different stages, progressively from cold or unheated to warmed to heated. Multi-step is used to best achieve a balance of the constituents and nutrients for a broad range health and healing benefits.


Tincture Handbook: Part 11 - Dual-Step Extraction Tinctures

Dual-step tinctures, also referred to double-step tinctures, are when a second step is added to single-step tinctures where the herbs are used again to produce a liquid extract that contains more water soluble nutrients and constituents.


Tincture Handbook: Part 10 - Classic Single-Step Extraction Tinctures

Single-step tinctures are effective remedies that are the traditional do-it-yourself homemade medicinal tinctures, which can be commercially manufactured and sold. They may be made by using a tincture press or by percolation method with whole herbs, cut-and-sifted quality, and/or powdered herbs.


Tincture Handbook: Part 9 - Maceration Duration and Herb Extraction Time

Fresh herbs tend to extract faster than dried herbs. Dried herbs tend to extract longer than fresh herbs, because they must be reconstituted during the time of maceration.


Tincture Handbook: Part 8 - Liquid Extract Ratios (Standard and Non-Standard)

A liquid extraction ratio is a numerical representation, which may include unit measures, that denotes the potency of a liquid extract by comparing amount of herbs to liquid used, the herb to menstruum, and is necessary for referencing serving size and dosage.


Tincture Handbook: Part 7 - Oil Liquid Extracts for Tinctures

Oil tinctures are made by macerating cut and sifted quality herbs that have oil soluble medicinal constituents in extra-virgin olive oil so that they may be taken orally, applied directly to skin, scalp, and hair, and mixed with cosmetics.


Tincture Handbook: Part 6 - Apple Cider Vinegar Liquid Extracts for Tinctures

Apple cider vinegar tinctures, also known as acetic tinctures, are a special class of liquid extracts that use raw apple cider vinegar as the menstruum. Apple cider vinegar preserves and easily extracts the volatile aromatics of herbs and spices, in addition to combining well with liver health and detoxification roots.


Tincture Handbook: Part 5 - Glycerin Liquid Extracts for Glycerites

A tincture made with vegetable glycerin and water is called a glycerite and is used for extracting mild tasting culinary spices or in the extracting of medicinal herbs for low potency, or for dissolving powder extracts. Glycerites are usually easy-to-take and apply externally, mixed with cosmetics, and in the cooking of food.


Tincture Handbook: Part 4 - Hydroalcohol Liquid Extracts for Tinctures

Hydroalcohol liquid extract is made by using a menstruum of edible alcohol (ethanol) and distilled water in the maceration and extraction of herbs. Hydroalcohol tinctures are superior for extraction methods, since they easily extract nearly all of the constituents, especially the volatile constituents, while also becoming a carrier of the constituents for quick and complete absorption.


Tincture Handbook: Part 3 - Types of Fluid Extraction Tinctures

An extraction tincture goes through a process of macerating and extracting spices, botanicals, and/or superfoods, which are collectively known as herbs in herbalism, directly into a fluid menstruum through a variety a methods that are either single, dual, or multi-step.


Tincture Handbook: Part 2 - Herbal Plant Parts Terminology and Processing Methods

When making extraction tinctures, both fresh herbs or dried herbs or a combination of both fresh and dried are used. When using herbs always select the correct part and process the herb accordingly, using the tradition of empirical hands-on usage and the modern scientific research as guidance.


Tincture Handbook: Part 1 - Tincture Definition and Tincturing Terminology

A tincture is an easy-to-take concentrated fluid supplement of any combination of vitamins, minerals, spices, herbs, botanicals, and/or superfoods that is taken in small serving sizes and fractional doses.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 16 - Evidence-Based Medicine is Done by Peer-Review

A specific form of medical consensus that is used when their is insufficient data and lacking contradictory research for making medical decisions is called evidence-based medicine done with peer-review, where a panel of experts will reach consensus, with any quality of available evidence, before implementing new methods of practice.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 15 - Medical Consensus Definition and Methodology

Medical consensus is the public facing disclosure and statements of agreed upon methods and practice by a private panel of relevant experts when lack of scientific methods exist or where evidence is contradictory.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 14 - Side Effects Are Unintended Results of Drug Use

A side effect is the medical risk of an unwanted consequence and unintended result from taking a medical drug, because they are toxic, that is a known or unknown reaction of abnormal functioning


Allopathic Medicine: Part 13 - Adverse Events Require Medical Intervention

An adverse event is an undesirable experience that may be associated with hydration or the lack thereof, eating or the lack thereof, taking supplements or the lack thereof, and physical, emotional, and/or mental activity or the lack thereof, and any experiences of medical treatment that is in error.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 12 - Prescription Drugs Require Physician Authorization

A prescription is an authorization that is prescribed by a healthcare professional for medical drugs, procedures, therapy, and counselling in the prevention, management, treatment, and cure of a disease or health-related conditions that has been diagnosed.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 11 - Drugs Treat, Manage, and Mitigate Diseases and Conditions

A drug is a non-healing form of toxic medicine used by medical healthcare professionals to intervene in the causes of health-related conditions and diseases, given by diagnosis, for treatment, prevention, management, and cure.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 10 - The Medical Patient Receives Medical Advice

A patient is a person who has authorized a medical healthcare physician to make an official recorded statement of the condition of their health and advise them medically, which may include a diagnosis of a disease or health-related conditions and any related treatments, including the prescribing of procedures and drugs.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 9 - Medical Treatments and What's in a Cure?

Within medical healthcare, a treatment is an intervention in the causes of disease after diagnosis. The final stage of a successful treatment protocol is called a cure, where the method of disease or condition intervention brings about a temporary relief of any associated non-functioning.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 8 - Mental Health Definition of Conditions and Diseases

Mental health is a medical industry marketing term to recognize a patient's diagnosis of a health-related conditions and disease within the allopathic fields of behavioral pathologies and psychological disorders.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 7 - Disease Diagnosis is by Symptoms

Within medical healthcare, a diagnosis is the process of determining the disease causes for treatment and management. A symptom is a manifestation of a health-related condition or disease which has been identified by healthcare practitioner to be directly related to a diagnosis and concurrent treatment.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 6 - Disease Definition and Health-Related Conditions

Disease is the theoretical clinical pathology name for a state of non-functionality that require treatment. A health-related condition, sometimes shortened to health condition or instead stated as a health problem or health issue, is medical industry marketing terminology that directly refers to a disease.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 5 - Pathologists and Healthcare Practitioners Practice Pathology

A pathologist is a person who researches, studies, and/or practices using pathology. A healthcare practitioner is a medical industry marketing term for any pathologist who is licensed to practice allopathy. The most commonly recognized pathologist is a conventional medical doctor (MD).


Allopathic Medicine: Part 4 - Pathogens and The Germ Theory

Pathogens are external contagious agents to our body that bypass or overcome immunity and the immune system, thereby causing an infection. Within the Germ Theory these pathogens are commonly known as germs which cause sickness.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 3 - The Development of Medical Practice

Medical practice uses pathology to treat, prevent, manage, and cure the causes of diseases and health-related conditions that have been diagnosed, such as non-functioning of the body, emotions, and mind.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 2 - The Practice of Pathology for Healthcare

Pathology is the theoretical science of allopathy for studying, researching, and discovering the causes of diseases.


Allopathic Medicine: Part 1 - Definition and Allopathy Overview

Allopathic medicine, also known as allopathy, is the all-encompassing methodology of practicing pathology to intervene with the causes of diseases and health-related conditions in individual patients.


Dietary Supplement Handbook: Part 9 - Authorized and Qualified Health Claims

Health claims are regulatory organization and medical industry marketing terms that refer to qualified or approved claims that a food and/or supplement reduces the risk of diseases or health-related conditions. There are two types of health claims.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 14 - Nutrient Density for Optimal Health and Performance

Nutrient density, an integral part of nutrition, is the overall concentration of nutrients that are needed and possibly required by the body to function, heal, grow, and develop. The bodily feeling of hunger is a craving for more nutrients which is satisfied by increasing nutrient density.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 13 - Minerals are Essential Elemental Nutrients


Nutrition Handbook: Part 12 - Vitamins are Cofactors for Health

Vitamins are essential carbon-based organic compounds that are utilized as metabolic cofactors for maintaining health, promoting vitality, supporting healing, and for the generation and regeneration of tissues. Vitamins must be acquired through a complete balanced diet, since they cannot be manufactured by the body.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 11 - Cholesterol is a Unique Essential Lipid

Cholesterol is a type of solid waxy fat, in the zoosterol grouping, with a complex carbon ring structure that is produced by animals and humans in the liver and only found in animal foods.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 10 - Fats are Required for Optimal Body Functioning

Fats, another name for lipids are made up of fatty acid hydrocarbons that are used by the body in various ways: for energy, hormones, organ function, nerve structure and neurotransmitters, and emotional and mental health. Fat has 9 calories of energy per gram which is twice the amount of oxidation compared to carbohydrates and protein.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 9 - Proteins are Fundamental Structural Components

Proteins are the structural components that are the fundamental parts of cells. such as the cytoplasm, protoplasm, and cell nucleus. Protein is found everywhere within the human body and includes skeletal muscle, organs, blood, bones, and lymph. Other types of proteins that have functions are DNA and RNA, enzymes, and hormones. Protein has 4.5 calories of energy per gram.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 8 - Carbohydrates are a Basic Source of Energy

Carbohydrates, in the form of starches and sugars, are necessary to consume and required for healthy performance and decreased stress-response. Continuous overconsumption of carbohydrates can cause someone to become overweight by reducing the density of nutrients in the diet.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 7 - Water is the Universal Biological Solvent

Water is the unique universal solvent that forms the biochemical basis for all the processes and reactions of all other essential nutrients, biochemicals, and other various solutes created by the body and received from the environment; therefore water is necessary for the hydration of systems, organs, glands, and tissues of the body to function, grow, develop, and heal.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 6 - The Science of Studying Nutrients

Nutrients are an essential part of nutrition found in food. Essential nutrients include protein (amino acids), lipids (fat), essential fatty acids (EFA's), vitamins and minerals.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 5 - Why Is Someone Hungry?

The uncomfortable feeling of hunger is normal and a natural desire of the body which is satiated by eating food. When someone is hungry their body needs the overall combined nutrition and various important nutrients and constituents found in food, so their body, emotions, mind, and spirit work.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 4 - Meals Per Day and Meal-Timing

Optimally, someone will eat 3 balanced complete meals per day. During daily activity the body requires nutrient density within the diet on a continuous basis every 4-6 hours for best functioning of body, emotions, and mind.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 3 - Building a Complete Balanced Meal

A complete balanced meal contains various food groups for balanced nutrition; different food groups have a different density of nutrients, such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and unique constituents that are best combined together in balanced way for optimal nutrition.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 2 - The Definition of Food and Not-Food

Food is what someone eats and drinks in their diet that is required for health, wellness, and well-being, such as water, beverages, meals, snacks, salt, and dietary supplements. Food is best consumed in balance during meals.


Nutrition Handbook: Part 1 - Nutrition Definition and Overview

Nutrition is the science of feeding the body food from various sources to create complete balanced meals that contain a density of essential nutrients, like protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and unique constituents.


Handbook of Health: Part 7 - What's the Difference Between Health and Disease?

Health and disease are two important terms that easily get mixed-up when considering food, nutrition, diet, nutrients and dietary supplements.


Handbook of Health: Part 6 - What's Public Health?

Public health is the study and practice of sanitation in in personal residences, public areas, community facilities, and the environment, including food and water quality.